python+selenium+unittest automated testing framework

Keywords: unit testing software testing


About the introduction of automated testing, there are many materials on the Internet, which will not be repeated here. UI automated testing is a kind of automated testing and the top layer of the test pyramid. selenium is an automated testing tool applied to the web. It supports multi platform, multi browser and multi language to realize automation. Its advantages are as follows:

① Open source, free and good support for web interface;;

② Multi browser support: chrome, Firefox, IE, Edge, etc;

③ Multi platform support: Linux, Windows, MAC;

④ Multilingual support: java, python, Ruby, c#, JavaScript, C + +;

⑤ Simple (API simple), flexible (development language driven), supporting distributed test case execution;

Environmental preparation

  • Browser (Chrome)
  • Python
  • Selenium
  • chromedriver (please download the driver of the corresponding version of Chrome)
  • IDE(Pycharm)

1. python and pycharm installation

2. selenium installation

pip install selenium ​

selenium element positioning is the basis and key to web automation testing. There are eight positioning methods, including id, class, xpath and so on

3. chromedriver driver installation

Driver download:

Then copy chromedriver.exe to the chrome installation directory... \ Google\Chrome\Application \, and add the chrome installation directory to the path environment variable.

4. Rapid verification test

Automated test framework

  • The config directory stores files related to the test configuration. The file type is ini, including the test website, browser driver and other information
  • The basic class base of the page is stored in the framework directory_ Page: encapsulates some common page operation methods; Log class Logger: encapsulates log output and console output methods
  • logs is used to store the output log files
  • pageobjects directory stores page objects. A page is encapsulated as a class and an element is encapsulated as a method
  • The screenshots directory stores the relevant screenshots during the test
  • test_report is used to store the output test report
  • The testsuites directory stores test cases, including test_base and individual test cases

1. config.ini configuration information is as follows:

2. Base under framework directory_ Encapsulation of page:

import time
from selenium.webdriver.common.action_chains import ActionChains
from import WebDriverWait
from import Select
import os.path
from framework.logger import Logger
# Create a log instance
logger = Logger(logger="BasePage").getlog()
class BasePage(object):
    Define a page base class, let all pages inherit this class, and encapsulate some common page operation methods
    def __init__(self, driver):
        self.driver = driver
        #get an url link
    def open(self,url):
        #quit browser and end testing
    def quit_browser(self):
        # Browser forward operation
    def forward(self):
        self.driver.forward()"Click forward on current page.")
        # Browser back operation
    def back(self):
        self.driver.back()"Click back on current page.")
        # Display wait
    def wait(self,loc,seconds):
            wait_.until(lambda driver:driver.find_element(*loc))
  "wait for %d seconds." % seconds)
        except NameError as e:
            logger.error("Failed to load the element with %s" % e)
        # Save picture
    def get_windows_img(self):
        hold file_path Save to a folder in the root directory of our project.\Screenshots lower
        file_path = os.path.dirname(os.path.abspath('.')) + 'Selenium/screenshots/'
        rq = time.strftime('%Y%m%d%H%M%S', time.localtime(time.time()))
        screen_name = file_path + rq + '.png'
  "Had take screenshot and save to folder : /screenshots")
        except NameError as e:
            logger.error("Failed to take screenshot! %s" % e)
         # Positioning element method
    def find_element(self,loc):
        :return: element
        return self.driver.find_element(*loc)
        # input
    def send_keys(self, selector, text):
        el = self.find_element(selector)
  "Had type \' %s \' in inputBox" % text)
        except NameError as e:
            logger.error("Failed to select in input box with %s" % e)
        # Clear text box
    def clear(self, selector):
        el = self.find_element(selector)
  "Clear text in input box before typing.")
        except NameError as e:
            logger.error("Failed to clear in input box with %s" % e)
        # Click element
    def click(self, selector):
        el = self.find_element(selector)
  "The element \'%s\' was clicked." % el.text)
        except NameError as e:
            logger.error("Failed to click the element with %s" % e)
        #Mouse event (left click)
    def move_element(self,loc,sloc):
        except Exception as e:
            logger.error("Failed to click move_element with %s" % e)
        # Forced waiting
    def sleep(seconds):
        time.sleep(seconds)"Sleep for %d seconds" % seconds)

logger log input method:

import logging
import os.path
import time
class Logger(object):
    def __init__(self, logger):
            Specify the file path to save the log, the log level, and the call file
            Save the log to the specified file
        # Create a logger
        self.logger = logging.getLogger(logger)
        # Create a handler to write to the log file
        rq = time.strftime('%Y%m%d%H%M', time.localtime(time.time()))
        log_path = os.path.dirname(os.path.abspath('.')) + 'Selenium/logs/'
        log_name = log_path + rq + '.log'
        fh = logging.FileHandler(log_name)
        # Create another handler for output to the console
        ch = logging.StreamHandler()
        # Define the output format of the handler
        formatter = logging.Formatter('%(asctime)s - %(name)s - %(levelname)s - %(message)s')
        # Add handler to logger
    def getlog(self):
        return self.logger

3. For reference on how to write page objects:

Page object inherits from base_page base class

from framework.base_page import BasePage
from import By
from framework.logger import Logger
logger = Logger(logger="cloud_page").getlog()
class Cloud(BasePage):
    input_box = (By.ID,'kw')
    search_submit = (By.XPATH,'//*[@id="su"]')
    def value_input(self, text):
        self.send_keys(self.input_box, text)
    def submit_btn(self):"show results!")

4. In the test suite part, the pre use case preparation setup and cleaning teardown to be executed for each use case are written in test_ In the base file, a single test case file inherits from it

from selenium import webdriver
import unittest
class TestBase(unittest.TestCase):
    def setUp(self):
        self.driver=webdriver.Chrome()   #Drive browser
        self.driver.implicitly_wait(10)  #Set implicit wait
        self.driver.maximize_window()    #Maximize browser
    def tearDown(self):
if __name__=='__main__':

Test case reference. Note that the test case method name must start with test

import time
from testsuites.test_base import TestBase
from pageobjects.baidu_page import Cloud
class BaiduSearch(TestBase):
    def test_baidu_search(self):
        There must be test At the beginning, the test logic code is encapsulated in a test In the first method.
        input = Cloud(self.driver)'')
        input.value_input('selenium')  # Calling methods in page objects
        input.submit_btn()  # Call the click search button method in the page object class
        input.get_windows_img()  # Call the base class screenshot method
            assert 'selenium' in 'selenium'
            print('Test Pass.')
        except Exception as e:
            print('Test Fail.', format(e))

5. Finally, the core code,, is used to execute test cases in batches and generate test reports by referencing the HTMLTestRunner module.

import unittest
from HTMLTestRunner import HTMLTestRunner
import time
import os
# Define the file location and name of the output
DIR = os.path.dirname(os.path.abspath(__file__))
now = time.strftime("%Y%m%d%H%M", time.localtime(time.time()))
filename =now+"report.html"
#The discover method executes the test suite
testsuite =
with open(DIR+'/test_report/'+filename,'wb') as f:
    runner = HTMLTestRunner(
       title='gateway UI report',

6. Test report display


The web automation framework based on selenium is not only lightweight but also flexible, and can quickly develop automated test cases. The framework design in this article is relatively simple. I hope it will help you in the design and implementation of web automation framework in the future, communicate and make progress together!

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Posted by spicey on Mon, 22 Nov 2021 19:12:36 -0800