[MySQL]: Use DDL to operate databases, tables

Keywords: Database MySQL SQL

1. DDL Operation Database

Keyword should be capitalized. For easy memory, this article is in lower case.

DDL(DATA Definition Language): A data definition language used to define database objects.

1. Create a database

create database db1;	#Create a database named mydb
create database if not exists db2;	#If db2 does not exist, create the database db2
create database db3 character set gbk;	#Create a database db3 and make the character set gbk

-- Comprehensive: If db4 If it does not exist, create it and set the character set to utf8(!No utf-8)
create database if not exists db4 character set utf8;

2. View the database

show databases;			# Query the names of all databases
show create database db1; #Query character set of created database db1

3. Modify the database

alter database db2 character set utf8;	#Modify database db2 character set to utf8

4. Delete database

drop database db4;		#Delete database db4
drop database if exists db3;	#Determine if db3 exists and delete it

5. Using databases

use db1;	# Using database db1
select database(); #View the database in use

2. DDL Operational Data Table

The table structure in a library can only be manipulated if a database is used.

1. Create tables

Format Tables

create table table table name (
    Column Name 1 Data Type 1, ##Field Comments can be added here
    Column Name 2 Data Type 2, ##Here you can add field comments
    Column Name n Data Type n ##Field Comments can be added here
 ); ##The last column does not need to be commas

For example:

create table student (
	id int, 	  -- number
	NAME varchar(20), -- Full name
	gender char(8),	  -- Gender
	birthday date 	  -- Birthday

MySQL data type

There are many types of data, and here are a few more fundamental ones.

Text correlation

  • varchar(m): A variable-length string that takes up a few characters, m between 0 and 65535.
  • char(m): A fixed-length string that will take up all characters regardless of how many they are used. The extra characters will be replaced by empty characters, m between 0 and 255.

This article is recommended for chars and varchar s: A deep analysis of the differences between char and varchar types

Number correlation

  • int: Integer type.
  • double: double precision floating point type.
  • float: Single-precision floating-point type.


  • Date: The date type, which contains only the year, month and day: yyyy-MM-dd.

  • Time: The type of time, consisting of only minutes and seconds: HH:mm:ss.

  • datetime: both date and time types, including year, month, day, time, second: yyyy-MM-dd HH:mm:ss.

  • Timestamp: The timestamp format is the same as above. If this field is not assigned, the system default time is automatically assigned.

Copy Table

create table new_stu like old_stu;      # Operation of copying tables

2. View Table

show tables;   # Query all table names in the database
desc student;	  # Structure of query table student

show create table student; #View student's create table SQL statement

3. Delete tables

drop table student;				#Delete table student
drop table if exists student;	#Determine if student exists and delete

4. Modify tables

Modify Table Name

alter table student rename to stu;  # Rename the student table to stu
rename table student to stu;

Modify Character Set

alter table stu character set gbk;   # Modify Character Set to gbk

Add Table Columns

alter table stu add address varchar(20);  # Add a column named address with the data type varchar

Modify Column Type

alter table stu modify address char(10);  # Modify the data type of address to char

alter table rename column

alter table stu change address addr char(10);  #Change column name to addr and data type to char

Delete Columns

alter table stu drop addr; 		# Delete addr column
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Posted by Anders_Scales on Wed, 04 Mar 2020 18:50:55 -0800