js regular expression learning

Keywords: regex

js regular expression learning

1. What is a regular expression?

  • Regular expressions describe the composition pattern of strings and are often used to check whether strings meet predetermined format requirements

  • **Regular expressions describe rules bit by bit: * * it describes the form of strings bit by bit

        // Create regular expression rule: indicates whether the detection data is a string starting with m and ending with n, with 6 numbers in the middle
        var regexp = /^m\d{6}n$/;

        var a="m123456n";
        // test method using regular expressions ceshi
        console.log(regexp.test(a));//The result is true, which complies with the rules

2. Creation of regular expressions

  • Method 1: create a regular expression in the form of / content /
  • Method 2: create a regular expression in the form of new RegExp('content '), but pay attention to escape characters\
  • js has a built-in RegExp() constructor
  • Use the typeof operator to detect the type of regular expression, and the result is object

3. Metacharacter

  • A metacharacter is a character of a specified type

    • \d: Match one digit
    • \D: Match a non digit
    • \w: Match one single word character (letter, number, or underscore)
    • \W: Match a non single word character
    • \s: Matches a blank character (space, tab, or newline)
    • .: any character
    • ^: indicates the beginning of the match
    • $: indicates the end of the match
    • [abc]: create a character set that can be matched
    • {5} : quantifier, indicating the preceding characters * 5
  • When we use new RegExp() to create regular expressions, we should pay attention to adding a backslash to escape where \ is used

  • Adding a \ before a special character means that the next character is not a special character and should be understood literally

  • var regExp=/^.$/;//. represents any character
    var regExp=/^\.$/;//. represents. Instead of any character
  • Whether a symbol is a special character or not, you can add a \ before the symbol to ensure that it represents the symbol itself

4. Square bracket notation

  • Using the square bracket notation, you can create a character set to match any of the characters, such as: [abc], which means that as long as it is a or b or c, it will pass

More advanced use of square brackets

  • You can use - in square brackets to represent a range, and ^ in square brackets means negative, which means non
    • The ranges in square brackets are or operations
    • \d is equivalent to [0-9]
    • \D is equivalent to [^ 0-9]
    • \w is equivalent to [A-Za-z0-9_]
    • \W is equivalent to [^ A-Za-z0-9]
        // Title 1: a five digit string, which is composed of upper and lower case letters
        var regexp=/^[A-Za-z]{5}$/;
        // Title 2: the string is five digits and consists only of lowercase letters and dots
        var regexp2=/^[a-z\.]{5}$/;
        // Title 3: four lowercase letters, and the last digit cannot be m
        var regexp3=/^[a-z]{3}[a-ln-z]$/
           //   var regexp3=/^[a-z]{3}[a-z^m] $/ is incorrect. Because a-z already contains M, it is considered true as long as one of them meets the specification

5. Quantifiers

Quantifier: a word indicating the number of occurrences of the previous expression

  • *: match the previous expression 0 or more times, equivalent to {0,}
  • +: match the previous expression one or more times, equivalent to {1,}
  • ?: match the previous expression 0 or 1 times, equivalent to {0,1}
  • {n} : matches the previous expression exactly n times
  • {n,}: matches the previous expression at least N times
  • {n,m}: match the previous expression at least N times and at most m times
        // Verify the eleven digit mobile phone number. The first character must be 1 and the last ten digits must be numbers
        var regexp=/^1\d{10}$/;
        var a=54571927712;//false
        var b=15457192771;//true

        // Validation string: starts with a letter, with any number in the middle (at least 1 bit) and ends with a letter
        var regexp1=/^[A-Za-z]\d+[A-Za-z]$/;
        var c="a1515b";//true
        var d="122121b";//false


        // Verification website address: start with www., with any number of characters in the middle, and end with. com or. com.cn
        var regexp2=/^www\.\w{1,}\.com(.cn)?$/;//? indicates that the preceding character can be left blank, so enclose. cn to indicate that. cn can be left blank

6. Modifier

  • Modifiers, also known as flags, are used for advanced search using regular expressions

    • i: Case insensitive search
    • g: Global search
  • How to use modifiers:

    •         // Add modifiers to regular expressions
              var regexp=/m/gi;
              // Separate new expressions with commas
              var regexp1=new RegExp("m","gi");

Posted by ozzythaman on Thu, 07 Oct 2021 07:51:03 -0700