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Image Similarity AlgorithmsDetailed Explanation of SIFT Algorithms
Detailed Explanation of Scaleinvariant Feature Transform Matching Algorithms
Scale Invariant Feature Transform(SIFT)
Just For Fun
zdd zddmail@gmail.com or (zddhub@gmail.com)
For beginners, there are many gaps from David G.Lowe's paper to implementation, and this article helps you bridge them.
If you're learning SIFI for retrieval purposes, maybe OpenSSE More suitable for you, welcome to use.
1. Overview of SIFT
Scaleinvariant feature transform ation (SIFT) is a computer vision algorithm for detecting and describing local features in images. It searches for extreme points in spatial scales and extracts their position, scale and rotation invariants. This algorithm was published by David Lowe in 1999 and improved in 2004. Knot.
Its applications include object recognition, robot map sensing and navigation, image stitching, 3D model building, gesture recognition, image tracking and motion comparison.
This algorithm has its own patent, which is owned by the University of British Columbia.
Description and detection of local image features can help to identify objects. SIFT features are based on some interest points of local appearance of objects and are independent of image size and rotation. Tolerance of light, noise and some microangle changes is also quite high. Based on these characteristics, they are highly significant and relatively easy to extract. In the feature database with a large number of matrices, they are easy to identify objects and rarely misrecognize. Using SIFT feature description, the detection rate of partial object occlusion is quite high, and even more than three SIFT object features are enough to calculate the position and orientation. In the current computer hardware speed and small feature database conditions, the identification speed can be close to realtime operation. SIFT features have a large amount of information and are suitable for fast and accurate matching in massive databases.
The characteristics of SIFT algorithm are as follows:
1. SIFT feature is a local feature of image. It keeps invariant to rotation, scale scaling, brightness change and stable to a certain extent to view angle change, affine transformation and noise.
2. Distinctiveness is good and abundant in information. It is suitable for fast and accurate matching in massive feature databases.
3. Multivariability, even a few objects can produce a large number of SIFT eigenvectors.
4. High speed, the optimized SIFT matching algorithm can even meet the realtime requirements.
5. Extensibility, which can be easily combined with other forms of eigenvectors.
SIFT algorithm can solve the following problems:
The performance of image registration/target recognition and tracking is affected by the state of the target, the environment of the scene and the imaging characteristics of the imaging equipment. To some extent, SIFT algorithm can solve the following problems:
1. Rotation, zooming and translation of the target (RST)
2. Image Affine/Projection Transform (viewpoint)
3. illumination
4. occlusion
5. clutter
6. noise
The essence of SIFT algorithm is to find key points (feature points) in different scale spaces and calculate the direction of key points. The key points found by SIFT are some very prominent points, such as corners, edges, bright spots in dark areas and dark spots in bright areas, which are not changed by illumination, affine transformation and noise.
Lowe decomposes the SIFT algorithm into the following four steps:
1. Scale Space Extremum Detection: Search for image positions on all scales. Gauss differential function is used to identify potential points of interest for scale and rotation invariance.
2. Key Point Location: At each candidate position, the position and scale are determined by a fine fitting model. The selection of key points depends on their stability.
3. Direction determination: Based on the local gradient direction of the image, one or more directions are assigned to each key point position. All subsequent operations on image data are transformed relative to the direction, scale and location of key points, thus providing invariance for these transformations.
4. Key Point Description: In the neighborhood around each key point, the local gradient of the image is measured on the selected scale. These gradients are transformed into a representation that allows for larger local shape deformations and light changes.
Following Lowe's steps, referring to Rob Hess and Andrea Vedaldi source code, this paper describes the implementation process of SIFT algorithm in detail.
2. Gauss ambiguity
SIFT algorithm searches for key points in different scale spaces, and the acquisition of scale space needs to be realized by using Gaussian ambiguity. Lindeberg et al. have proved that Gaussian convolution kernel is the only transform core and the only linear kernel to realize scale transformation. In this section, we first introduce the Gauss fuzzy algorithm.
2.1 TwoDimensional Gauss Function
Gauss blurring is an image filter. It uses normal distribution (Gauss function) to calculate the fuzzy template, and uses the template to convolute with the original image to achieve the purpose of blurring the image.
The normal distribution equation in Ndimensional space is as follows:
(11)
Among them,It is the standard deviation of the normal distribution.The bigger the value, the blurred (smooth) the image. r is a fuzzy radius, which refers to the distance from the template element to the center of the template. If the size of twodimensional template is m*n, then the corresponding Gauss formula of elements (x,y) on the template is:
(12)
In twodimensional space, the contour of the surface generated by this formula is a concentric circle with normal distribution from the center, as shown in Figure 2.1. The convolution matrix composed of nonzerodistributed pixels is transformed from the original image. The values of each pixel are the weighted average of the neighboring pixel values. The value of the original pixel has the largest Gauss distribution value, so it has the largest weight. As the adjacent pixels get farther and farther from the original pixel, their weight becomes smaller and smaller. In this way, the edge effect is preserved more effectively than other equalized fuzzy filters.
In theory, the distribution of each point in the image is not zero, which means that the calculation of each pixel needs to include the whole image. In practical applications, when calculating the discrete approximation of Gauss function, the pixels beyond the approximate 3_distance can be regarded as ineffective, and the calculation of these pixels can be ignored. Usually, the image processing program only needs calculation.The matrix can guarantee the influence of the relevant pixels.
2.2 TwoDimensional Gauss Blurring of Image
According to the value of_, the size of Gauss template matrix is calculated.(By using formula (12) to calculate the value of the Gauss template matrix and convoluting the original image, the smooth (Gauss blurred) image of the original image can be obtained. In order to ensure that the elements in the template matrix are between [0,1], it is necessary to normalize the template matrix. The 5*5 Gauss template is shown in Table 2.1.
The following figure is a 5*5 Gauss template convolution calculation sketch. The Gauss template is centrally symmetric.
2.3 Separated Gauss Fuzzy
As shown in Figure 2.3, the blurred image is achieved by using twodimensional Gauss template, but the edge image is missing due to the relationship between the template matrix (2.3b, c).The larger the size, the more missing pixels, the more black edges (2.3 d) will be caused by discarding the template. More importantly, when it becomes larger, the amount of operation of Gauss template (Gauss kernel) and convolution will be greatly increased. According to the separability of Gauss function, twodimensional Gauss fuzzy function can be improved.
The separability of Gauss function means that the effect obtained by using twodimensional matrix transformation can also be obtained by onedimensional Gauss matrix transformation in horizontal direction and onedimensional Gauss matrix transformation in vertical direction. From a computational point of view, this is a useful feature because it only requiresSubcomputations, and twodimensional indivisible matrices are requiredSecondly, m, n is the dimension of the Gauss matrix and M, N is the dimension of the twodimensional image.
In addition, two onedimensional Gauss convolutions will eliminate the edges generated by twodimensional Gauss matrix. (Discussions on edge removal are shown in Figure 2.4 below. For dotted boxes, which are part of the template matrix beyond the boundary, convolution calculation will not be done. In Figure 2.4, the first template 1*5 in the x direction will degenerate into a template 1*3 and convolute only the part inside the image. )
Appendix 1 is a twodimensional Gaussian ambiguity and separated Gaussian ambiguity implemented by opencv2.2. Table 2.2 compares the two methods mentioned above with the Gauss ambiguity program implemented by opencv2.3 open source library.
3. Extremum Detection in Scale Space
Scale space is represented by a Gauss pyramid. Tony Lindeberg points out that the scale normalized Laplacion of Gaussian operator has real scale invariance. Lowe uses the Gauss difference pyramid to approximate the LoG operator to detect the key points of stability in the scale space.
3.1 Scale Space Theory
The idea of scale space was first put forward by Iijima in 1962. It has been widely used in computer vision neighborhoods since it was popularized by witkin and Koenderink.
The basic idea of scale space theory is to introduce a parameter which is regarded as scale in image information processing model, obtain multiscale space representation sequence by continuously changing scale parameters, extract the principal contour of scale space from these sequences, and use the principal contour as a feature vector to realize the edge. Corner detection and feature extraction at different resolutions.
Scale space method incorporates the traditional singlescale image information processing technology into the dynamic analysis framework with changing scales, which makes it easier to acquire the essential features of images. In scale space, the blurring degree of each scale image gradually increases, which can simulate the formation process of the target on the retina from near to far distance.
Scale space satisfies visual invariance. The visual interpretation of the invariance is as follows: when we observe an object with our eyes, on the one hand, the brightness level and contrast of the retina perception image are different when the illumination conditions of the background of the object change. Therefore, it is required that the analysis of the image by the scale space operator is not affected by the changes of the gray level and contrast of the image. That is to say, it satisfies the invariance of gray scale and contrast. On the other hand, relative to a fixed coordinate system, when the relative position between the observer and the object changes, the position, size, angle and shape of the image perceived by the retina are different. Therefore, the scale space operator is required to analyze the image irrespective of its position, size, angle and affine transformation. Foot translation invariance, scale invariance, Euclidean invariance and affine invariance.
Representation of 3.2 Scale Space
A scale space of an image,Gauss function defined as a scale of changeAnd original imageConvolution.
(31)
Where * denotes convolution operations,
(32)
Similar to formula (12), m, n denotes the dimension of the Gauss template.Confirm). (x, y) represents the pixel position of the image.It is a scale space factor. The smaller the value, the less the image is smoothed, the smaller the corresponding scale. Large scale corresponds to the general features of the image, and small scale corresponds to the details of the image.
Construction of 3.3 Gauss Pyramid
Scale space is represented by a Gauss pyramid in its implementation. The construction of the Gauss pyramid is divided into two parts:
1. Gauss blurring on different scales of the image;
2. Sample the image downward (separated point sampling).
The pyramid model of an image refers to a pyramid model consisting of a series of images of different sizes, from large to small and from bottom to top. The original image is the first layer of the pyramid. The new image obtained by each downsampling is one layer of the pyramid (one image per layer). Each pyramid has n layers. The pyramid layers are determined by the original size of the image and the size of the image on the top of the pyramid. The calculation formulas are as follows:
(33)
M, N are the size of the original image and t is the logarithmic value of the minimum dimension of the tower top image. For example, for images with size 512*512, the sizes of the images of the upper layers of the pyramid are shown in Table 3.1. When the image of the top of the pyramid is 4*4, n=7, and when the image of the top of the pyramid is 2*2, n=8.
In order to make the scale reflect its continuity, the Gauss pyramid adds the Gauss filter on the basis of simple downsampling. As shown in Figure 3.1, the image of each layer of the pyramid is blurred by using different parameters, so that each layer of the pyramid contains multiple Gauss blurred images. The pyramid is called an Octave. Each layer of the pyramid has only one set of images. The number of arrays is equal to the number of pyramid layers. The formula (33) is used to calculate the image. Each group contains multiple images (also known as Layer Interval). In addition, the initial image (bottom image) of a group of images on the Gauss pyramid is sampled from the reciprocal third image of the previous group.
Note: Because the images in the group are overlapped by layers, the images in the group are also called multilayers. In order to avoid confusion with the concept of pyramid layer, in this paper, if the number of pyramid layers is not specified, the layers generally refer to the images in the group.
Note: As shown in Section 3.4, in order to detect the extremum points of S scales in each group, the DOG pyramid requires S+2layer images for each group, while the DOG pyramid is subtracted from two adjacent layers of the Gauss pyramid, the Gauss pyramid needs S+3layer images for each group, and the actual calculation time S is between 3 and 5. When S=3 is taken, it is assumed that the Gauss pyramid storage index is as follows:
Group 0 (i.e. Group1): 0 1 2 3 4 5
Group 1: 67 8 9 10 11
Group 2:
Then the first picture in the second group is sampled from the image with index 9 in the first group, and the others are similar.
3.4 Gauss difference pyramid
In 2002, Mikolajczyk found Gaussian Laplace function with normalized scales in detailed experimental comparisons.Compared with other feature extraction functions, such as gradient, Hessian or Harris angle features, the maximum and minimum of the proposed method can produce the most stable image features.
Lindeberg discovered Gauss Difference of Gaussian (DOG operator) and scale normalized Gauss Laplace function as early as 1994.Very similar. amongandThe relationship can be derived from the following formula:
When differential approximation is used instead of differential approximation, there are:
Therefore, there are
k1 is a constant and does not affect the location of the extreme point.
As shown in Figure 3.2, the red curve represents the Gauss difference operator, while the blue curve represents the Gauss Laplacian operator. Lowe uses a more efficient Gauss difference operator instead of Laplacian operator for extremum detection, as follows:
(34)
In practical calculation, the Gauss difference image is obtained by subtracting two adjacent layers of image in each group of the Gauss pyramid. As shown in Figure 3.3, the extremum detection is carried out.
3.5 Spatial Extreme Point Detection (Preliminary Exploration of Key Points)
The key point is composed of local extremum points in DOG space. The preliminary exploration of key points is accomplished by comparing the two adjacent layers of DoG images in the same group. In order to find the extremum points of DoG function, each pixel point should be compared with all its adjacent points to see whether it is larger or smaller than its adjacent points in image domain and scale domain. As shown in Figure 3.4, the middle detection point is compared with 26 points corresponding to 8 adjacent points of the same scale and 9*2 points corresponding to the upper and lower adjacent scales to ensure that extreme points are detected in both scale space and twodimensional image space.
For the comparison of adjacent scales, as shown in Figure 3.3, each group of fourlayer Gauss difference pyramids on the right side can only detect the extreme points of two scales in the middle two layers, while the other scales can only be detected in different groups. In order to detect the extremum points of S scales in each group, the DOG pyramids need S+2layer images for each group, while the DOG pyramids are subtracted from the two adjacent layers of the Gauss pyramid, then the Gauss pyramids need S+3layer images for each group. In actual calculation, S is between 3 and 5.
Of course, the extremum points generated by this method are not all stable feature points, because some extremum points have weak response, and DOG operators will produce strong edge response.
3.6 Parameters to be determined in constructing scale space
 Scale space coordinates
Ogroup (octave) number
Sgroup Inner Layer Number
In the above scale space, O and S,The relationship is as follows:
(35)
amongIt is the base level scale, o is the index of group octave, s is the index of group inner layer. Scale coordinates of key pointsIt is calculated by formula (35) according to the group where the key points are located and the layer within the group.
At the beginning of building the Gauss pyramid, the input image should be blurred in advance as the image of the 0th layer of the 0th group, which is equivalent to discarding the highest spatial sampling rate. Therefore, the usual method is to double the scale of the image to generate group  1. We assume that the initial input image has been processed to combat confusion.Gauss blur, if the size of the input image is doubled by bilinear interpolation, is equivalent to.
The k in formula (34) is the reciprocal of the total number of layers in the group, i.e.
(36)
When constructing the Gauss pyramid, the scale coordinates of each layer in the group are calculated according to the following formula:
(37)
amongInitial scale, lowe sts is the intragroup index and the intragroup scale coordinates of the same layer in different groupsThe same. The next image in the group is pressed by the previous image.Gauss ambiguity is obtained. Formula (37) is used to generate Gauss images of different scales in a group at one time, while in calculating the scales of a layer of images in a group, the following formulas are used directly to calculate the scales:
(38)
The size of the sampling window is determined by the inner scale in the direction assignment and feature description.
Formula (34) can be recorded as
(39)
Figure 3.5 is a sketch of the DOG pyramid. The original image uses 128*128 jobs images to double the size of the pyramid.
4. Key Point Location
The extremum points detected by the above methods are the extremum points in discrete space. Fitting the threedimensional quadratic function to determine the location and scale of the key points accurately, and removing the low contrast key points and unstable edge response points (because DoG operator will produce strong edge response), in order to enhance matching stability and improve antinoise. Sound ability.
4.1 Precise Location of Key Points
The extremum point in discrete space is not the real extremum point. Figure 4.1 shows the difference between the extremum point in discrete space of twodimensional function and that in continuous space. The method of using known discrete space points to interpolate the continuous space extremum points is called Subpixel Interpolation.
In order to improve the stability of key points, it is necessary to fit the DoG function in scale space. The Taylor expansion (fitting function) of DoG function in scale space is as follows:
(41)
Among them,. By deriving and making the equation equal to zero, the offset of the extreme point can be obtained as follows:
(42)
Corresponding to the extreme point, the value of the equation is:
(43)
Among them,An offset representing the relative interpolation center when it is greater than 0.5 in any dimension (i.e., x or y orIt means that the interpolation center has shifted to its adjacent point, so the position of the current key point must be changed. At the same time, interpolation is repeated in the new position until convergence; it may exceed the set number of iterations or beyond the boundaries of the image. At this time, such points should be deleted and iterated five times in Lowe. In addition,Too small points are vulnerable to noise interference and become unstable, so willExtremum deletion is less than an empirical value (Lowe paper uses 0.03, Rob Hess et al. uses 0.04/S for implementation). At the same time, the precise position of feature points (insitu location plus fitting offset) and scale are obtained during the process.().
4.2 Eliminating Edge Response
The extremum of a poorly defined Gauss difference operator has a larger principal curvature across the edge and a smaller principal curvature in the direction of the vertical edge.
DOG operator will produce strong edge response, and unstable edge response points need to be eliminated. The H essian matrix at the feature points is obtained, and the principal curvature is obtained through a Hessian matrix H of 2x2:
(44)
The eigenvalues alpha and beta of H represent the gradients in the x and y directions.
(45)
Represents the sum of the diagonal elements of matrix H and the determinant of matrix H. Suppose that the eigenvalue of alpha is larger, but that of beta is smaller.Then
(46)
The derivative is estimated from the adjacent difference of the sampling point, which is explained in the next section.
The principal curvature of D is proportional to the eigenvalue of H. If the maximum eigenvalue of a and the minimum eigenvalue of beta are given, then the formula is given.When the two eigenvalues are equal, the value is the smallest and increases with the increase of the eigenvalues. The larger the value, the larger the ratio of the two eigenvalues, that is, the greater the gradient value in one direction, and the smaller the gradient value in the other direction, which is exactly the case at the edge. Therefore, in order to eliminate the edge response points, it is necessary to make the ratio less than a certain threshold. Therefore, in order to detect whether the principal curvature is in a certain range r, only detection is needed.
(47)
Formula (47) retains the key points and eliminates them.
In Lowe's article, take r = 10. Figure 4.2 shows the distribution of key points on the right after eliminating the edge response.
4.3 Finite Difference Method for Derivatives
The finite difference method approximates the continuous values of independent variables in differential equations by the function values corresponding to the discrete values of variables. In the finite difference method, we abandon the feature that independent variables can take continuous values in differential equations, and focus on the corresponding function values after discrete values of independent variables. However, in principle, this method can still achieve any satisfactory calculation accuracy. Because the continuous numerical solution of the equation can be approximated by reducing the interval between discrete values of independent variables or by interpolating functions at discrete points. This method has been developed with the birth and application of computers. Its calculation format and program design are intuitive and simple, so it is widely used in computational mathematics.
The operation of the finite difference method is divided into two parts:
1. The differential equation is replaced by the difference, and the continuous variable is discretized to obtain the mathematical form of the difference equation system.
2. Solving difference equations.
The first and second derivatives of a function at point x can be approximately expressed by the difference of the value of the function at two points adjacent to it. For example, for a single variable function f(x), x is a continuous variable defined on interval [a,b], with step size.By discretizing the interval [a,b], we will get a series of nodes.
Then the approximate values of f(x) at these points are obtained. Obviously, the smaller the step h, the better the accuracy of the approximate solution. And nodeThe adjacent nodes areandSo at the nodeThe difference can be constructed as follows:
Firstorder forward difference of nodes
Firstorder backward difference of nodes
First order central difference of nodes
In this paper, the central difference method is used to solve the derivatives used in Section 4 by Taylor expansion, and the following derivations are made.
The function f(x) is inThe Taylor expansion of the region is:
(48)
Then,
(49)
(410)
Ignoring the term after hsquare, the simultaneous equation (49), (410) solves the system of equations.
(411)
(412)
The Taylor expansion of binary functions is as follows:
takeTwodimensional mixed partial derivatives are obtained by neglecting the minor terms of the simultaneous solution equation after expansion as follows:
(413)
In summary, all derivatives encountered in 4.1 and 4.2 are derived. Similarly, the approximate difference representation of arbitrary partial derivatives can be obtained by using multivariate Taylor expansion.
In image processing, Take h=1. In the image shown in Figure 4.2, the basic midpoint derivative formula of pixel 0 is arranged as follows:
4.4 Inverse Formula of Third Order Matrix
The inversion algorithms of higherorder matrices mainly include normalization method and elimination method. Now, the inversion formulas of thirdorder matrices are summarized as follows:
If matrix
Reversible, that isAt that time,
(414)
5. Direction allocation of key points
In order to make the descriptor rotation invariant, it is necessary to assign a reference direction to each key point by using the local features of the image. The method of image gradient is used to find the stable direction of local structure. For the key points detected in the DOG pyramid, the gradient and direction distribution characteristics of the pixels in the 3 neighborhood window of the Gauss pyramid image are collected. The modulus and direction of the gradient are as follows:
(51)
L is the scale space value of the key point. According to Lowe's suggestion, the modulus m(x,y) of the gradient is as followsGauss distribution addition, according to the 3_principle of scale sampling, the radius of neighborhood window is.
After calculating the gradient of the key points, the histogram is used to calculate the gradient and direction of the pixels in the neighborhood. The gradient histogram divides the direction range from 0 to 360 degrees into 36 columns (bins), of which each column is 10 degrees. As shown in Fig. 5.1, the peak direction of the histogram represents the main direction of the key points. (For simplification, only eight directions are drawn in the histogram.)
The peak value of the directional histogram represents the direction of the neighborhood gradient at the feature point, and the maximum value of the histogram is the main direction of the key point. In order to enhance the robustness of matching, only the direction where the peak value is greater than 80% of the peak value in the main direction is retained as the auxiliary direction of the key point. Therefore, for the key points of multiple peaks of the same gradient value, there will be multiple key points created at the same location and scale, but in different directions. Only 15% of the key points are given multiple directions, but the stability of key points matching can be significantly improved. In the actual programming implementation, the key points are copied into multiple key points, and the direction values are assigned to these key points respectively. Moreover, the discrete gradient direction histogram should be interpolated and fitted to obtain more accurate direction angle values. The test results are shown in Fig. 5.2.
So far, SIFT feature points which contain position, scale and direction will be detected.
6. Key Point Characteristic Description
Through the above steps, for each key point, there are three information: location, scale and direction. The next step is to create a descriptor for each key point, and describe the key point with a set of vectors so that it does not change with various changes, such as changes in light, perspective and so on. This descriptor includes not only the key points, but also the pixels around the key points that contribute to it. Moreover, the descriptor should have a higher uniqueness in order to improve the probability of correct matching of feature points.
SIFT descriptor is a representation of the gradient statistical results of the key point neighborhood Gauss image. By partitioning the image area around the key points, the gradient histogram in the block is calculated to generate a unique vector, which is an abstract and unique image information in the region.
Lowe suggests that the descriptor be represented by a 4*4*8=128dimensional vector, using the gradient information of eight directions calculated in the 4*4 window of the key point scale space. The steps are as follows:
1. Determine the image region needed to compute the descriptor
The feature descriptor is related to the scale of feature points, so the gradient should be calculated on the corresponding Gauss image of feature points. The neighborhood near the key point is divided into d*d(Lowe suggested d=4) subregions, each subregion as a seed point, each seed point has eight directions. The size of each subregion is the same as that of the key point direction allocation, i.e. each region has oneSubpixels, assigning edge lengths to each subareaSampling in rectangular area (actual edge length of each subpixel isThe rectangular region of the equation (38) can be included.Not too big. In order to simplify the calculation, take the edge length asAnd the sampling points should be more or less. Considering that bilinear interpolation is needed in practical calculation, the required edge length of image window is. Considering the rotation factor (to facilitate the next step to rotate the coordinate axis to the direction of the key point), as shown in Figure 6.1 below, the actual calculation of the required image area radius is as follows:
(61)
The results are rounded.
2. Rotate the coordinate axis in the direction of the key points to ensure rotation invariance, as shown in 6.2.
The new coordinates of the sampling points in the neighborhood after rotation are:
(62)
3. The sampling points in the neighborhood are allocated to the corresponding subregion, and the gradient values in the subregion are allocated to eight directions, and their weights are calculated.
The coordinates of the rotating sampling points are assigned to the radius circle.The gradient and direction of sampling points affecting the subregion are calculated and assigned to eight directions.
Sampling points after rotationThe subscript that falls on the subregion is
(63)
Lowe suggests that the gradient size of the pixels in the subregion should be as followsGaussian weighting calculation, i.e.
(64)
Among them, a and b are the position coordinates of the key points in the Gauss pyramid image.
4. Interpolation calculates gradients in eight directions for each seed point.
As shown in Figure 6.3, the subscripts of the sampling points obtained by equation (63) in the subregionLinear interpolation is used to calculate its contribution to each seed point. The red dot in the figure falls between line 0 and line 1, contributing to both lines. The contribution factors to the seed points of row 0, row 3 and row 1 are dr, and to row 1, column 3 are 1dr. Similarly, the contribution factors to the adjacent two columns are DC and 1dc, and to the adjacent two directions are do and 1do. Then the gradient in each direction is finally accumulated as follows:
(65)
Where k, m, n are 0 or 1.
5. The 4*4*8=128 gradient information of the above statistics is the eigenvector of the key point. After the formation of feature vectors, in order to remove the influence of illumination changes, they need to be normalized. For the overall drift of image gray value, the gradient of each point in the image is obtained by subtracting the neighborhood pixels, so it can also be removed. The resulting descriptor subvector isThe normalized eigenvector isbe
(67)
6. Describe subvector thresholds. Under nonlinear illumination, the change of camera saturation causes the gradient value in some directions to be too large, but the influence on direction is weak. Therefore, the threshold value (0.2 after normalization of vectors) is set to truncate the larger gradient value. Then, a normalization process is carried out to improve the discriminability of features.
7. The feature description vectors are sorted according to the scale of feature points.
So far, SIFT feature description vectors are generated.
The description vector is not easy to understand. I drew a sketch for your reference.
7. Disadvantages of SIFT
SIFT has incomparable advantages in image invariant feature extraction, but it is not perfect and still exists:
1. Realtime is not high.
2. Sometimes there are fewer feature points.
3. It is impossible to extract feature points accurately for objects with smooth edges.
As shown in Figure 7.1 below, for blurred images and edge smoothing images, too few feature points are detected, and there is nothing to do with circles. Recent improvements have been made, most notably SURF and CSIF.
8, summary
I have been studying SIFT algorithm for more than a month. In view of the lack of relevant knowledge, scale space technology and differential approximation derivation have been difficult for me for a long time. In Lowe's paper, little or no details are mentioned, which makes it difficult to implement. After multireference, implementation, summed up in this article. I think I have the most detailed information about SIFT algorithm so far. I would like to share it with you and look forward to criticism and correction.
Also shared with you are the simultaneous implementation of Gauss fuzzy source code, sift algorithm source code, see Appendix 1, 2. The source code is implemented with vs2010+opencv2.2.
zdd
April 28, 2012, Beijing Normal University
First Amendment 15:33:23 May 17, 2012
Amendments: Part 3.3, Figure 3.1, Figure 3.5.
Correct the following code: http://download.csdn.net/detail/zddmail/4309418
Reference material
1,David G.Lowe Distinctive Image Features from ScaleInvariant Keypoints. January 5, 2004.
2,David G.Lowe Object Recognition from Local ScaleInvariant Features. 1999
3,Matthew Brown and David Lowe Invariant Features from Interest Point Groups. In British Machine Vision Conference, Cardiff, Wales, pp. 656665.
4,PETER J. BURT, MEMBER, IEEE, AND EDWARD H. ADELSON, The Laplacian Pyramid as a Compact Image Code. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. COM3l, NO. 4, APRIL 1983
5. Songdan 10905056 Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) (PPT)
6. RaySaint's blog SIFT algorithm research http://underthehood.blog.51cto.com/2531780/658350
7,Jason Clemons SIFT: SCALE INVARIANT FEATURE TRANSFORM BY DAVID LOWE(ppt)
8,Tony Lindeberg Scalespace theory: A basic tool for analysing structures at different scales.1994
9. Rob Hess of SIFT <hess@eecs.oregonstate.edu> SIFT source code
10. SIFT source code implemented by Opencv2.2 Andrea Vedaldi(UCLA VisionLab) http://www.vlfeat.org/~vedaldi/code/siftpp.html, opencv2.3 Change to Rob Hess Source Code
11. The Finite Difference Method of Partial Differential Equations in Scientific Computing EditorinChief Yang Le
12. Wikipedia SIFT entry: http://zh.wikipedia.org/zhcn/Scaleinvariant_feature_transform
13. Baidu Encyclopedia SIFT entry: http://baike.baidu.com/view/2832304.htm
14. Other Internet Information
Appendix 1 Gauss Fuzzy Source Code
http://blog.csdn.net/zddmail/article/details/7450033
http://download.csdn.net/detail/zddmail/4217704
Appendix 2 SIFT algorithm source code
http://download.csdn.net/detail/zddmail/4309418
<div class="hidearticlebox hidearticlepos textcenter"> <a class="btnreadmore" datareportview='{"mod":"popu_376","dest":"https://blog.csdn.net/jiutianhe/article/details/39896931","strategy":"readmore"}' datareportclick='{"mod":"popu_376","dest":"https://blog.csdn.net/jiutianhe/article/details/39896931","strategy":"readmore"}'> Read the full text <svg class="icon chevrondown" ariahidden="true"> <use xlink:href="#csdncchevrondown"></use> </svg> </a> </div> <div class="recommendbox"><div class="recommenditembox type_blog clearfix" datareportclick='{"mod":"popu_387","dest":"https://blog.csdn.net/chenghaoy/article/details/83308448","strategy":"BlogCommendFromMachineLearnPai2","index":"0"}'> <div class="content"> <a href="https://Blog.csdn.net/chenghaoy/article/details/83308448 "target="_blank "rel=" noopener "title=" image similarity calculationtemplate matching "> <h4 class="texttruncate oneline"> picture<em>Similarity degree</em>Calculationtemplate matching </h4> <div class="infobox dflex aligncontentcenter"> <p class="dateandreadNum oneline"> <span class="date hovershow">1023</span> <span class="readnum hoverhide"> Reading number 1845</span> </p> </div> </a> <p class="content"> <a href="https://Blog.csdn.net/chenghaoy/article/details/83308448 "target="_blank "rel=" noopener "title=" image similarity calculationtemplate matching "> <span class="desc oneline">What is template matching? The socalled template matching is to give a template image and a search image, in the search image to find the most similar part of the template image. How to achieve it? Simply put, it is to let the template image slide on the search image and calculate each position in pixels....</span> </a> <span class="blog_title_box oneline "> <span class="typeshow typeshowblog typeshowafter">Bowen</span> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://Blog.csdn.net/chenghaoy "> from < span class=" blog_title "> chenghaoy's blog</span></a> </span> </p> </div> </div>
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SIFT feature is a scale invariant feature. It is not clear why it is scale invariant. forum
<div class="recommenditembox recommenddownloadbox clearfix" datareportclick='{"mod":"popu_387","dest":"https://download.csdn.net/download/u011745380/9967334","strategy":"BlogCommendFromBaidu2","index":"48"}'> <a href="https://download.csdn.net/download/u011745380/9967334"rel="noopener" target="_blank" rel="noopener"> <div class="content clearfix"> <div class=""> <h4 class="texttruncate oneline clearfix"> <em>SIFT</em><em>algorithm</em><em>Detailed explanation</em>And Application(It's very good and detailed.) </h4> <span class="data floatright">0906</span> </div> <div class="desc oneline"> SIFT Algorithm characteristics • SIFT Feature is the local feature of image. It keeps invariant to rotation, scale scaling, brightness change, and stability to a certain extent to view angle change, affine transformation and noise. • Uniqueness(Distinctiveness)Okay, information. </div> <span class="typeshow typeshowdownload">download</span> </div> </a> </div> <div class="recommenditembox recommendrecommendbox"><div id="kp_box_68" datapid="68" datareportview='{"mod":"kp_popu_68625","keyword":""}' datareportclick='{"mod":"kp_popu_68625","keyword":""}'><script type="text/javascript"> (function() { var s = "_" + Math.random().toString(36).slice(2); document.write('<div style="" id="' + s + '"></div>'); (window.slotbydup = window.slotbydup  []).push({ id: "u4623747", container: s }); })();
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