[Go open source treasure] Golang crawler | new tricks

Keywords: Go crawler

Write in front

Everyone may be tired of Python crawlers. Let's play with Golang crawlers!
This article will be continuously updated!

Mind map

To get the original image or. xmind format, scan at the end of the text and reply to the Go crawler

Golang provides the net/http package, which supports request and response natively.

1. Send request

  • Construct client
	var client http.Client
  • Construct GET request:
	reqList, err := http.NewRequest("GET", URL, nil)
  • Construct POST request

Go provides a function method of cookie jar.new, which is used to retain the generated cookie information. This is for some websites that can only be accessed after logging in. Therefore, after logging in, there will be a cookie that stores user information, that is, this information is to let the server know who is accessing this time! For example, log in to the Academic Affairs Office of the school to crawl the timetable. Because everyone of the timetable may be different, you need to log in and let the server know whose timetable information this is. Therefore, you need to add a cookie on the request header to disguise crawling.

	jar, err := cookiejar.New(nil)
	if err != nil {

When constructing a POST request, you can encapsulate the data to be transmitted and construct it together with the URL

	var client http.Client
	Info :="muser="+muserid+"&"+"passwd="+password
	var data = strings.NewReader(Info)
	req, err := http.NewRequest("POST", URL, data)
  • Add request header
	req.Header.Set("Connection", "keep-alive")
	req.Header.Set("Pragma", "no-cache")
	req.Header.Set("Cache-Control", "no-cache")
	req.Header.Set("Upgrade-Insecure-Requests", "1")
	req.Header.Set("Content-Type", "application/x-www-form-urlencoded")
	req.Header.Set("User-Agent", "Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 10.0; Win64; x64) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/86.0.4240.198 Safari/537.36")
	req.Header.Set("Accept", "text/html,application/xhtml+xml,application/xml;q=0.9,image/avif,image/webp,image/apng,*/*;q=0.8,application/signed-exchange;v=b3;q=0.9")
	req.Header.Set("Accept-Language", "zh-CN,zh;q=0.9")
  • Send request
	resp, _:= client.Do(req)  // Send request
	bodyText, _ := ioutil.ReadAll(resp.Body)  // Read web page content using buffer
  • About cookie s

The above also mentioned a package. After sending the request, the cookie will be saved in the client.Jar package

	myStr:=fmt.Sprintf("%s",client.Jar)   //Force type conversion pointer to string

After we process and print out the information of the client.Jar package, we can select the response cookie and put it on the request header! We can handle the cookie problem in the case of login.

	req.Header.Set("Cookie", "ASP.NET_SessionId="+cook)

So far, the sending request part is completely completed!

2. Analyze web pages

2.1 CSS selector

github.com/PuerkitoBio/goquery provides the. NewDocumentFromReader method to parse web pages.

	doc, err := goquery.NewDocumentFromReader(resp.Body)

2.2 Xpath syntax

github.com/antchfx/htmlquery provides the. Parse method to parse web pages

	root, _ := htmlquery.Parse(resp.Body)

2.3 Regex regularization

	reId, _ := regexp.Compile(`id=(\d+)`)  // Regular matching
	allId := reId.FindAll(bodyText,1)
	for _,item := range allId {

3. Get node information

3.1 CSS selector

Through 2.1, after we get the doc parsed in the previous step, we can use css selector syntax to select nodes.

doc.Find("#main > div.right > div.detail_main_content").
			Each(func(i int, s *goquery.Selection) {
			Data.title = s.Find("p").Text()
			Data.time = s.Find("#fbsj").Text()
			Data.author = s.Find("#author").Text()
			Data.count = Read_Count(Read_Id)
			fmt.Println(Data.title, Data.time, Data.author,Data.count)

doc.Find("#news_content_display").Each(func(i int, s *goquery.Selection) {
			Data.content = s.Find("p").Text()

3.2 Xpath syntax

Through 3.2, after we get the root parsed in the previous step, we can write Xpath syntax and select nodes.

	tr := htmlquery.Find(root, "//*[@ id='LB_kb']/table/tbody/tr/td ") / / use Xpath to obtain node information
	for _, row := range tr { //len(tr)=13
		classNames := htmlquery.Find(row, "./font")
		classPosistions := htmlquery.Find(row,"./text()[4]")
		classTeachers := htmlquery.Find(row,"./text()[5]")
		if len(classNames)!=0 {
			className = htmlquery.InnerText(classNames[0])
			classPosistion = htmlquery.InnerText(classPosistions[0])
			classTeacher = htmlquery.InnerText(classTeachers[0])

4. Save information

4.1 using native SQL statements to save data in Mysql

  • Define database link parameters
const (
	usernameClass = "root"
	passwordClass = "root"
	ipClass       = ""
	portClass     = "3306"
	dbnameClass   = "class"
  • Connect to database
var DB *sql.DB
func InitDB(){
	path := strings.Join([]string{usernameClass, ":", passwordClass, "@tcp(", ipClass, ":", portClass, ")/", dbnameClass, "?charset=utf8"}, "")
	DB, _ = sql.Open("mysql", path)
	if err := DB.Ping(); err != nil{
		fmt.Println("opon database fail")
	fmt.Println("connect success")
  • Define data type
type Class struct {
	classData   string
	teacherName string
	position    string
  • insert data
func InsertData(Data Class) bool {
	tx, err := DB.Begin()
	if err != nil{
		fmt.Println("tx fail")
		return false
	stmt, err := tx.Prepare("INSERT INTO class_data (`class`,`teacher`,`position`) VALUES (?, ?, ?)")
	if err != nil{  // Data insertion
		fmt.Println("Prepare fail",err)
		return false
	_, err = stmt.Exec(Data.classData,Data.teacherName,Data.position)  //Execute transaction
	if err != nil{
		fmt.Println("Exec fail",err)
		return false
	_ = tx.Commit()  // Commit transaction
	return true

4.2 using GORM to save data to Mysql

  • Construct GORM model
type NewD struct {
	Title   string `gorm:"type:varchar(255);not null;"`
	Time    string `gorm:"type:varchar(256);not null;"`
	Author  string `gorm:"type:varchar(256);not null;"`
	Count   string `gorm:"type:varchar(256);not null;"`
	Content string `gorm:"type:longtext;not null;"`
  • Connect to database
var db *gorm.DB

func Init() {
	var err error
	path := strings.Join([]string{userName_New, ":", password_New, "@tcp(",ip_New, ":", port_New, ")/", dbName_New, "?charset=utf8"}, "")
	db, err = gorm.Open("mysql", path)
	if err != nil {
	_ = db.AutoMigrate(&NewD{})
	sqlDB := db.DB()
  • Write data
	NewA := NewD{
		Title:   Data.title,
		Time:    Data.time,
		Author:  Data.author,
		Count:   Data.count,
		Content: Data.content,
	err = db.Create(&NewA).Error  // Create a piece of data in the database

Posted by Cep on Tue, 21 Sep 2021 18:00:44 -0700