1, rsync introduction
rsync is called remote synchronization in English. From the name of the software, it can be seen that rsync can make the data between the local and remote hosts copy the synchronous image and remote backup quickly. This function is similar to the scp command with ssh, but it is better than the scp command. * * scp is a full copy every time, while rsync can be an incremental copy. **Of course, rsync can also copy data in full and incremental between different partitions or directories of the local host, which is similar to the cp command. But it is also better than cp command. cp is a full copy every time, and rsync can be an incremental copy.
When synchronizing data, by default, rsync uses its unique "quick check algorithm, which synchronizes only the files or directories whose size or last modification time has changed, of course, it can also synchronize according to the changes of permissions, ownership and other attributes, but it needs to develop corresponding parameters, and even can synchronize only the changed parts of a file, so it can realize fast synchronization of backup data.
rsync - a fast, versatile tool for full and incremental remote (and local) file replication.
rsync listening port: 873
rsync operation mode: C/S
2, Advantages and disadvantages of rsync
1) It can support incremental backup, socket (daemon) and centralized backup (push and pull are supported, which are all based on the client); socket (daemon) needs encrypted transmission, which can use vpn service or ipsec service.
2) The data can be backed up or restored within the speed limit.
3) Remote SHELL channel mode can also encrypt (SSH) transmission
4) It supports the process mode transmission of anonymous authentication (without system users), and can realize convenient and safe data backup and mirroring
5) Keep all attributes of the original file or directory such as permission, time, soft and hard link, owner, group unchanged - p
6) It can exclude the synchronization of specified files or directories, which is equivalent to the exclusion of the packaging command tar. (–exclude)
1) When a large number of small files are backed up synchronously, the time of comparison is longer, sometimes the rsync process stops running or the process is suspended;
a. Resynchronization after packing;
b. drbd (file system synchronous replication block).
2) Synchronization of large files, such as 10G, sometimes causes problems, leading to rsync process interruption. Before complete synchronization, files are hidden, but disk space is occupied (LS al view). Until the synchronization is complete, change the hidden file to a normal file. Moreover, a hidden file is generated for each interrupt.
3, Three working modes of rsync
There are three transport modes of Rsync: local mode, remote mode and daemons.
Local replication mode: similar to cp
rsync [OPTION...] SRC... [DEST]
Tunnel transport mode: similar to scp
rsync [OPTION...] [USER@]HOST:SRC... [DEST]
rsync [OPTION...] SRC... [USER@]HOST:DEST
Daemonic mode: the most common way to transfer data is through the daemonic socket
rsync [OPTION...] [USER@]HOST::SRC... [DEST]rsync [OPTION...] rsync://[USER@]HOST[:PORT]/SRC... [DEST]
rsync [OPTION...] SRC... [USER@]HOST::DEST rsync [OPTION...] SRC... rsync://[USER@]HOST[:PORT]/DEST
Note: push and pull operations are all performed through the rsync client.
4, rsync daemons mode deployment
Server: 192.168.116.128 centos7.5
Client: 192.168.116.129 centos7.5
1. Verify that the rsync software service exists
rpm -qa rsync #Install yum -y install rsync
2. Manually configure the rsync software configuration file
[root@localhost ~]# vim /etc/rsyncd.conf ##Global configuration uid = root #user gid = root #User groups use chroot = no #Safety related max connections = 200 #Maximum number of links timeout = 300 #Timeout pid file = /var/run/rsyncd.pid #Process number file corresponding to the process lock file = /var/run/rsync.lock #Lock file log file = /var/log/rsyncd.log #Log files, displaying error messages ##Module configuration [backup] #Module name path = /data #Module location (path) ignore errors #Ignore bad program read only = false #Read only or not list = false #Can I list hosts allow = 192.168.116.0/255.255.255.0 #The range of customers allowed to access rsync server #hosts deny = 0.0.0.0/32 #Range of customers who are forbidden to access rsync server auth users = rsync_backup #User that does not exist; only for authentication secrets file = /etc/rsync.password #Set the key file for connection authentication
Note: in the configuration file, there should be no comments or spaces after the lines.
3. Create rsync backup directory / authorize rsync users to manage backup directory; modify backup directory permissions
[root@localhost ~]# mkdir -p /data [root@localhost ~]# useradd rsync -s /sbin/nologin -M [root@localhost ~]# chown -R rsync.rsync /data/
4. Create authentication user password file; modify file permissions
[root@localhost ~]# echo "rsync_backup:123456" > /etc/rsync.password [root@localhost ~]# chmod 600 /etc/rsync.password
5. Restart the rsync daemons service
systemctl restart rsyncd.service systemctl enable rsyncd.service
To create a password file, you only need a password in the client password file. At the same time, the password file permissions are 600
echo "123456">/etc/rsync.password chmod 600 /etc/rsync.password
Client push file
touch aaa.txt rsync -avz aaa.txt firstname.lastname@example.org::backup --password-file=/etc/rsync.password
Note: rsync uses port 873 by default. When the firewall is turned on, the port needs to be released.
Client pull file
rsync -avz email@example.com::backup --password-file=/etc/rsync.password /data
See if there are files
[root@localhost ~]# cd /data/ [root@localhost data]# ll //Total dosage 0 -rw-r--r--. 1 root root 0 4 29 / 18:13 aaa.txt