abstract, static, and final modifiers

Keywords: Java

8. abstract, static and final modifiers

8.1 abstract

  • Class abstract class

    Abstract classes can only declare references and cannot create objects

    For subclasses to inherit

    In life, an abstract class is a parent class abstracted from different subclasses. It does not have its own objects, such as animals and vehicles

  • Method abstract method

    Only the method declaration, no method implementation, and the method implementation part is semicolon

    It only declares what functions the object has, and does not define how the object implements this function

8.1.2 relationship between abstract classes and abstract methods

If a class has abstract methods, the class must be abstract

Abstract methods do not necessarily exist in abstract classes

Subclasses inherit abstract classes. If subclasses do not want to become abstract classes, they must implement all abstract methods in the parent class

A reference can call all methods declared in its reference type, including abstract methods

The declaration and implementation are separated. The declaration is in the parent class and the implementation is left to the child class ----- the commonness of the data class is placed in the parent class

8.1.3 the role of polymorphism and abstraction

  1. Improve weak coupling of code



Abstract classes can be used as convenience, and specify the method specifications that the object should have

Weak coupling is achieved by isolating the user of the standard from the implementation of the standard

8.2 static

  • Static properties of member variables (properties)

    The whole class is common and does not belong to any object

    It can be accessed directly with the class name

  • Method static method

    Can be called directly with the class name

    Static methods can only access static members of a class, not non static members of a class, and this cannot occur

    Subclasses can override the static methods of the parent class with static methods, without polymorphism

    If we call a static method on a reference, the compiler will change the code to: call a static method on a reference type

    package day05;
     * @author Xiaobai, sun Jiayao wants yangshijun
     * static static state
    public class textStatic {
        public static void main(String[] args) {
            Myclass mc1 =new Myclass();
            Myclass mc2 =new Myclass();
            Myclass mc = new Myclass();
            Myclass.print();//Static methods are called directly with the class name
             ClassA a=new ClassB();
            a.method();//It becomes ClassA.method() during execution;
    class Myclass{
        int a=10;
        static int b= 20;
        public static void print(){
            //System.out.println(a);  error! Static methods can only access static members of a class, not non static members of a class
    class ClassA{
        public static void method(){
            System.out.println("ClassA method");
    class ClassB extends ClassA {
        public static void method(){
            System.out.println("Class B method");

  • Initial code block static initial code block

class A{
   static {
       Systerm.out.println("Init A");
  • Execute once when the class is loaded

    Class loading: when the JVM uses a class for the first time, it needs to read the bytecode file corresponding to the class into the JVM, so as to obtain all the information of the class (class parent, which properties, methods, construction methods, etc.) and save it. (saved in the method area of the JVM) a class will only be loaded once during the running of the JVM.

    public class textStaticInitCode {
        public static void main(String[] args) {
            new A();
            new A();
    class A{
        static {
            System.out.println("Init A");
        static int m =10;
        public A(){
    // Output    InitA  A()  A() 

When will the class load?

Create this kind of object for the first time

Static member of the first access class

When loading subclasses, you may also need to load the parent class first

If it is only a reference to a life class, class loading is not required

Class loading process?

  1. If necessary, load the parent class first

  2. Allocate space for static properties of the class and assign default values

  3. Initialize static properties or run static initialization code in the order of the code


  • Class. This class cannot be inherited and cannot have subclasses

  • Method cannot be overridden by subclasses

  • Once the variable member variable + local variable constant is assigned, it cannot be changed

    When final modifies a member variable, the system does not provide a default value, so it must be assigned once in the initialization attribute or construction method.

    8.4 modifier combination

Neither private static final nor abstract can appear at the same time

Posted by PhilipXVIII18 on Wed, 17 Nov 2021 01:49:12 -0800