Recently, a video of Python automated office was suddenly popular on Xiaopo station. The address is as follows: 5 minutes, I'll teach you to make an automation software to work, brush copies and return to wechat. The source code is open and can be used out of the box
But although the source code is open, it is not completely out of the box. It is really a little difficult for those comrades who are not very good at the foundation
Therefore, I have specially prepared this article for my comrades. If you want to learn the recent popular automated Python office, just read this article!
- Python environment
First of all, since it's agreed that Python is the automatic office, the first one to bear the brunt must be python. I won't repeat it here. It's not difficult to configure the python environment. There are a lot of online, but I still recommend you to use the next pycharm. After all, professional tools are used to do professional things.
- pyautogui Library
Next, we introduce a key library of Python office automation - pyautogui, which is mainly a module to control the use of mouse and keyboard. Its download method is also very simple. You can download it through pip. You can also directly search other materials for specific download methods. There is no need to repeat here. Let's talk about some of the most commonly used functions of pyautogui Library:
''' Get basic information ''' import pyautogui # # Screen size size = pyautogui.size() print(size) # Mouse position mouse_pos = pyautogui.position() print(mouse_pos) # Determine whether the point is in the screen print(pyautogui.onScreen(100,100))
''' Control mouse movement ''' import pyautogui size = pyautogui.size() # Move the mouse to the position of (10, 10), and the period duration is 1 second pyautogui.moveTo(10,10,duration=1) # Move the mouse to the center of the screen, and the duration is 0.5 seconds pyautogui.moveTo(size.width/2,size.height/2,duration=0.5) # The mouse moves relatively, and the duration is 1 second pyautogui.moveRel(100, 0,duration=1)
''' Mouse movement ''' import pyautogui # Last position last_pos = pyautogui.position() try: while True: # New location new_pos = pyautogui.position() if last_pos != new_pos: print(new_pos) last_pos = new_pos except KeyboardInterrupt: print('\nExit.')
''' Mouse movement and click ''' import time # This is the system time base import pyautogui # System preparation time, stop for 1 second time.sleep(1) # Get the location of the help menu Project_pos = pyautogui.locateOnScreen('Project.png') goto_Project = pyautogui.center(Project_pos) # Move mouse pyautogui.moveTo(goto_Project,duration=1) # click pyautogui.click() # Then move the mouse to the return icon and click break_pos = pyautogui.locateOnScreen('break.png') goto_break = pyautogui.center(break_pos) # Move mouse pyautogui.moveTo(goto_break,duration=1) pyautogui.click()
''' keyboard entry There is a problem that you can't input Chinese here. Please refer to the following solutions: Import pyperclip Library, if not available: pip install pyperclip install Function: send text to the clipboard or read the clipboard text Usage: pyperclip.copy('dsd')#Send text to clipboard pyperclip.paste()Read clipboard text Reuse pyautogui.hotkey('ctrl','v')paste ''' import time import pyautogui import pyperclip # System preparation time, stop for 1 second time.sleep(1) # Click once editor Python! pyautogui.click(button="left") # Enter [Python awesome!] pyautogui.typewrite("I like Python!") # Enter enter and enter pyautogui.typewrite('\nI like you.',0.25) # Enter [good], then change the initial text to capital G, and finally write a sentence at the end of the line pyautogui.typewrite(['enter','g','o','o','d','left','left','left','backspace','G','end','.'],0.25) # Input Chinese and use pyperclip.copy('Hello, Python')#Send the text to the clipboard and paste it into the text with pyautogui.hotkey('ctrl','v ') pyperclip.copy('Hello, Python') pyautogui.hotkey('ctrl','v')
''' Use of key combinations ''' time.sleep(2) # Each action interval is 0.5 seconds pyautogui.PAUSE = 0.5 # pyautogui.FAILSPAFE = True # Enable the automatic fault prevention function. The coordinates in the upper left corner are (0, 0). Move the mouse to the upper left corner of the screen to throw a failSafeException # Notepad typing time (note here that it is Notepad. If it is Word, f5 it is search and replacement) pyautogui.press('f5') # Enter three lines pyautogui.typewrite('\nhelo') pyautogui.typewrite('\nhelo') pyautogui.typewrite('\nhelo') # Press the Ctrl key (Note: keyDown is pressed and not released, then keyUp is released, and press is pressed) pyautogui.keyDown('ctrl') # Press the a key to select all pyautogui.press('a') # Press the c key to copy pyautogui.press('c') # Release the Ctrl key pyautogui.keyUp('ctrl') # Click under Notepad pyautogui.click(600,600) # Enter two blank lines pyautogui.typewrite('\n\n') # paste pyautogui.hotkey('ctrl','v')
Finally, the above is only the most commonly used and basic functions of pyautogui. For more details, see Official API documentation.
Expansion and promotion
Recently, I took a little job from a brother. My brother is the Secretary of the League branch. He collects screenshots of League activities every week. In short, he saves the screenshots of everyone in the group, repeats his name and counts the quantity. This simple and cumbersome work makes him complain, so I wrote him a Python automation script.
pyautogui library for collecting pictures in the group
Collecting pictures in the group is simple. You can use pyautogui to perform common operations on the mouse and keyboard, and directly give him a wave of anthropomorphic operations. See the code for details:
# -*-coding:utf-8-*- """ Author: Bai Lang Date: November 25, 2021 (The code here is for reference only and does not apply to others) """ import pyautogui # Automatic operation Library import time # System time base # Popup def auto_alert(): # Displays a simple message pop-up with text and an OK button. The user clicks and returns the text of the button. # pyautogui.alert(text='', title='', button='OK') b = pyautogui.alert(text='Are you sure you want to start the super invincible automated program?', title='Super invincible automation program', button='determine! Rush') print(b) # The output is OK def goto_img(img): # Gets the location of the first picture found # img_pos = pyautogui.locateOnScreen(img,confidence=0.8) # print(img_pos) # Get the location of multiple pictures img_pos_list = list(pyautogui.locateAllOnScreen(img, confidence=0.8,grayscale=True)) print(img_pos_list) # Move the mouse to the picture position to_img = pyautogui.center(img_pos_list) pyautogui.moveTo(to_img,duration=0) # Step 1: receive pictures def Step1_GetImg(): print('Start receiving pictures') # The system waits for 5 seconds, during which time you have to open the area where you want to receive pictures # time.sleep(5) # Come to the class group try: goto_img('class.png') pyautogui.click() except: goto_img('class2.png') time.sleep(1) while 1: # Move the mouse to the screenshot area try: goto_img('jietuweizhi.png') except: try: goto_img('jietuweizhi2.png') except: continue # Press the right mouse button pyautogui.mouseDown(button='right') pyautogui.mouseUp(button='right') # Save as screenshot goto_img('save.png') # click pyautogui.click() try: goto_img('save2.png') except: goto_img('save3.png') # click pyautogui.click() # Move the mouse to the screenshot area try: goto_img('jietuweizhi.png') except: try: goto_img('jietuweizhi2.png') except: continue pyautogui.scroll(-20) # Scroll down 10 spaces pyautogui.scroll(-20) # Scroll down 10 spaces # Step 2: rename the picture def Step2_rename(): print('Start renaming pictures') if __name__ == '__main__': # Popup auto_alert() # Step 1: receive pictures Step1_GetImg() # Step 2: rename the picture Step2_rename()
The main reason why I threw the try and exception exception exception above is that pyautogui.locateOnScreen(img) has too high precision and can't find the picture in time. After changing to pyautogui.locateOnScreen(img,confidence=0.8), confidence is the precision parameter. The range is 0 ~ 1. The greater the precision, the more accurate it must be. If the precision is too small, it's easy to identify other wrong pictures, Can't achieve the desired effect. So throw an exception
Rename collected pictures
How to rename the picture file after collecting the picture? This is a good question!
Here I use the following method:
- First, use the file management Library - os to obtain the collected pictures;
- Then use the picture recognition text library - pytes seract to identify the position picture text;
- The characters recognized here may also contain other text information you don't want, so we use the regular library - re to regularize and extract the text information we want;
- Finally, the location image is renamed by using the file management library os;
The method is such a method, but there are still many details that need to be paid attention to in the implementation process, mainly in terms of download, installation and configuration. Here, for your convenience, I put the download link and the compressed package matched with the Chinese font package here, and you can pick it up by yourself:
Detail 1: Download and install pytes seract
Remember your installation directory (the installation path of the blogger is C: \ program files (x86) \ Tesseract OCR), and you will configure the environment variables to use.